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Darfur has been at the heart of the state agenda since the advent of the national salvation revolution in 1989. This could be seen in its endeavors to achieve balanced development among the various regions of the country, creating the regional government according to which Sudan was divided into regions and then into states with the view to allow people run their own affairs in each state and effect the aspired development and progress therein. Darfur region was divided into three states namely: North Darfur, South Darfur, and West Darfur states. Each of those states has its own capital, state government, and its legislative council.
Furthermore, with the advent of the February 2003 events in Darfur the government gave yet more attention to the situation there, focusing on humanitarian and security situation as it is the government’s responsibility to safeguard unity, and peace for its citizens and to provide them with descent living and social services. It is within this framework that peace realization efforts exerted by the government should be viewed. Realizing peace and national accord are the two greatest achievements in the recent history of Sudan.
But since the outbreak of the events in Darfur, in February 2003, a new quest for peace started involving hard work and meaningful dialogue that aims at achieving the highest national interest of the country and responding to the aspirations of the Sudanese nation. Those aspirations include achieving security and stability allover the country.
The steps taken so far for achieving such objectives included the following encounters: Abache meetings, N’djamena 1, N’djamena 2, the Libyan mediation, the Addis Ababa Negotiations, the Abuja Negotiations which up to now counted some seven rounds as well as the African Union efforts in the ceasefire and the monitoring of the two parties, the mediation between the two sides to the conflict.
These efforts have greatly contributed in cooling down the situation in Darfur.
The government efforts continued unabated afterwards, including home initiatives aimed at bringing in peace from within the Sudan, these included Al-Fashir deliberative encounter, mobilization of the official, popular and local administration leadership to work for the restoration of the social cohesion in the region, securing the villages and towns and provision of services in the domain of health and education for the persons affected by the conflict, drawing of a multi-dimensional comprehensive plan to restore what the war has destroyed and to return the region to stability and to its position of contributing in the development of the country.
The Sudan News Agency hereby presents this documentary profile on efforts exerted so far for the achievement of peace in Darfur region of western Sudan.
His story of Islam in Darfur
Darfur extends between 9 and 20 latitude north and from 16 to 27.3 longitudes thus occupying an area of over 186,404 square miles. This is one fifth of the total area of the whole country. It has common borderlines with each of Libya, Chad, and the Central African Republic. Thus there is no natural barrier that inhibits the free movement of people or obstructs social, economic, and cultural interaction between the people of Darfur and those countries. The civilians in those areas are but an extension and a continuum of the tribal grouping found on the other side of the borderline. Those borderlines were adopted during the Berlin negotiations 1883-1885 without no considerations for these factors.
Demographically and according to the 1993 population count Darfur host 4.746.456 persons. Those belong to such tribes as the fur, Zaghawa, Rizzigat, Maidoob, Ziaydia, Tongur, Berti, Bazzaa, Mima, Bani Fadul, Bani Hussein, Awlad Agwi, Marareet, Bigou, Taaisha, Maalia, Birgid, Habania, Massiriah, Salamat, Bani Halba, Barnou, Saada, Abou Darag, Falata, Ambararou, Houtiah, Torjum, Mahiria, Dajou, Massalit, Gimir, Tama, Mahadi, Otriah, Aringa, Bargou, Itaifat, Taaliba Daroog, Sulihab, Hawar, Bani Hussein and other tribes.
Islam entered the area of Darfur since the 12 and 13 centuries that is since the times of Dajour and Tunjur sultanates then it flourished during the Fur sultanate and under the rule of Sultan Dorsheed the latest of The Tonjur sultanate. This sultan was according to reports, a Muslim and he married his daughter Khira to Ahmed Sufian known as Ahmed Maagour and it is not true that sultan Shwo converted to Islam at the hand of Ahmad Maagour as reported by some historians. Islam entered in the lives of those three sultanates from north and West Africa and Scholars came to the region from the Nile Valley regions.
One of the telling evidences on the early presence of Islam in Darfur is the fact that there is a Wagf or (Islamic endowment) known as the Tunjur Wagf in the holy Islamic town of Madinah which dates back to the time of sultan Ahmed Ruggaa Al Tingirawi which is an indication of the Islamic nature of that sultanate. Remnants of an ancient mosque in the town of Orei were also found, yet another indication of the early presence of Islam in that region of north Darfur.
Numerous factors were behind the spread of Islam well before the establishment of the Fur Sultanate in the mid of he fifteen century. These factors were yielding fruits as early as the time Islam started to spread in West Africa a since the early eleventh century where pilgrims used to cross this country on their ay to the holy Muslim sites. there was also the continued movement of the Arab traders who were cordially welcomed by the Darfur population. This presence helped spreading Arabic as the language of Koran and as a means of communication and lingua franca in the various cultural, social, political and economic domains.
And the people of Darfur consider teaching of Islamic religion and reading and recitation of Koran as a holy duty and that every person, male or female has to do and to discharge this duty to the best of their ability. This eagerness to learn and recite the Muslim holy book has made population movement a constant feature of the region of Darfur. A man who learned Koran by heart was being allowed to have a wife and was exempted of paying any dowry.
And each village in Darfur used to have its center for teaching the muslin holy book and a mosque where the five prayers would be performed. Some of the learned persons migrated to Egypt Cairo where they joined the al Azahar as early as the year1850 and at the time they were assigned a place known as the Riwag of Darfur (the alley of Darfur) which up to date is still holding the same name. Darfurians were known to have traveled to all areas in north.
The Political Axis
At the peace of the talks with the SPLA in Southern Sudan with the view to establish peace in the south, a rebellion occurred in Darfur. That movement had even occupied the headquarters of the province of Jabel Mara and they lowered the national flag and hoisted instead the flag of group which identified itself as the Darfur Liberation Movement which it later changed into the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLA/M).
On the 24 of February 2003 reports talked of the armed groups having overrun the area of Golo in north Darfur and there also they hoisted their flag. But the governor of north Darfur at the time, General Ibrahim Suleiman and denied the report.
Some three days later the government of Darfur put its forces in full state of alert following the killing of at least four persons and the injury of a group of others in the borderline town of Tine, killing and looting and running away with a number of land cruisers.
These developments incited the government to declare a full state of emergency in the states of Darfur, withiest minister of interior General Abdul Rahim flew to the town of El Fashir from where he went to N’djamena town accompanied by the governor of north Darfur state Ibrahim sulimen who was the chairman of the mechanism set by the president to preserve security and order in the states of Darfur. At the same time the governor of south Darfur state general Adam Hamid engaged in intensive meeting with his staff and concerned parties to confront any possible development in the state.
In April the same year the same group in collaboration with another group, which called itself the justice and equality movement, attacked the town of el Fashir burning down seven planes docked at the airport, killing 75 soldiers and taking captive an army general spreading fear and havoc in the town before fleeing away.
The Defense minister at the time, General Bakri Hassan Salih, told the parliament members in a five hour address and in the presence of the first vice president and the secretary general of the National Congress party, twenty ministers and three governors and was devoted to the development of the situation Darfur.
In May the same year the armed groups attacked the ton of Millet in the far north area of north Darfur killing 27 soldiers. The fled away.
But the government insisted on a peaceful solution to the Darfur question and on leading dialogue the armed groups in Darfur of western Sudan.
However the armed groups continued their attacks and looting of property, killing officials and development project leaders including the killing of Ahmed Yousif the director of Jabel Mara development project in west Darfur state while accompanying his family on the Nyala Zalinge road. He and his family were all killed on the spot. This incident was one of a hundred of other incidents committed by the armed groups.
The Root Causes of the Question
Historically the region of Darfur had contacts with the outside world via two ways, the Arabian Desert road that links Asiot in Egypt and Kobi in Darfur. The second road is the one that goes from Tripoli up to the Jalwa and Kufra to Waytti from which it goes into two directions one moving westward to the area of Waday and the other moving towards Darfur. These two historical roads had enabled Darfur to have direct contacts with the outside world in the North and to have active trade exchanges with the outer world on the other hand. These contacts also helped with the flow of ideologies, cultures, and human movements from the north to the area. Darfur could be divided into four main areas. The Northern area is composed of steeped hills in the northeast, covered with mountains series and in the northeast we have the Midoob Mountains and in the center we have the volcanic hills series with numerous creeks cutting through them. This Midoob Mountains rises up to 6,000 feet above the sea level. The people there are mostly nomads or semi-nomads having as their main profession raising camels, moving with their herds southward up to the great rivers of western Darfur such as the river valley of Azooun and Wadi Bari which are both good environment for grazing of camels, with no need to additional source of water.
As to the central area in Darfur, it is divided by the main feature of the area, which is the Jabal Marra Mountain.
This area is considered the most important center for the Fur tribes, well established in their villages that extend along the valleys of Jabal Marra. These valleys are Azoum, which goes up and joins the Bari valley in the area of Murni and they move westwards to pour into Lake Chad.
On the other hand the northern area of Darfur extends up to the southern boundaries with Bahar Arab and northwest along the river Bahar Alarab. This is the area inhabited by the Baggara nomadic tribes who spend summer time alongside the Bahar Alarab River and beyond and then when the rain season comes they move northwards to the higher dry areas.
The last area covers the jabal Marra series of mountains that divide the whole region into two equal spaces.
This areas is considered a main basin between the Nile basin and the Chad Lake basin, it covers an area of seventy miles, extending for forty miles in longitude and thirty-five in width. However it is difficult to specify its northern boundaries.
There are three main groups living in Darfur: urbanized tribes, nomadic and the semi-nomadic. Darfur represents a tremendous linguistic area
Where we find some 14 languages. The First demographic group that leads a form of settled pattern of life:
The Fur Group:
This group lives along the Jabal Mara mountainous series. This area is theirs from an ethnic point of view and the birthplace for their ancestors. They live westward up to Wadi Azoum.
The Fur language is clearly distinct from the Arabic language. It is a rich language in its derivatives and vocabularies and it has a very complex system of grammar and linguistic structures. The main profession of the fur is agriculture and they cultivate millet, and sorghum. Sorghum and millet are the main staple food for the fur tribal group, though they prefer sorghum as is normally yield much grain compared with the millet. They also cultivate the maize in addition to other rainy crops such as the groundnuts, pepper, sesame, and watermelon. They also use the Azoum valley water to cultivate winter crops. The fur groups are known to be industrious and hard workers. They cultivate their crops on the steeps on the side of the high hills and mountain that rises to over nine thousand feet above the sea and the agricultural activities in this region depend mainly on the water of the rain. The level of underground water is also very shallow and they use this to irrigate their crops as well in the steeps organized with high techniques.
Cotton is also cultivated in all the areas of the fur for local consumption. They also raise huge number of sheep, goats, and cattle.
The Fur women live a life with little restrictions and they constitute an active part of the fur community.
Women here do possess their own plots of lands for cultivation, though these plots are normally smaller in size compared to that of men. All the Fur tribe is a Muslim tribe. Mosques are found in every Village, every village has its prayer leader and it Wiseman. There are also some types of practices that date back to the pre-Islamic era such as the celebrations marking the rainfall.
The Demography of Darfur
The Massalit are located in the western part of Darfur, from the west it is flanked by Wadi Asunga and Wadi Kajo Kaje, from the East is Wadi Bari and Wadi Azoum. The areas that group the Massalit tribes extends for some 140 miles from the north to the south and varying from 50 to 7o miles east west Thus covering an area of about seven thousand squired miles. The main activity of the population is raising cattle, sheep and never own camels.
Their staple food is millet and they also cultivate onion on the banks of the creeks and Wadis. Iron is spread all over the Massalit region. They are known for their artisan work in iron. The Massalit affiliate themselves regularly to an Arab origin going back to the Arab peninsula. They say their distinct language is learned from the local population where the Arab nomads coming from peninsula settled finally. However ethnographically the Negroid traits seem to be prevalent among them with some slight Arab blood that they gained by intermarriage with the Arab who lived amongst them in few numbers particularly in the northern part of their area. Beside their own language, Arabic is also understood allover the areas of the Massalit.
Dajou and the Tonjur:
These are two groups currently living in Darfur region. Dajou are known to be historically one of the oldest ruling groups in Darfur region. They now live in the hillside along the northeastern and southeastern part of Nyala. The word Nyala itself means in the Dajou language to mean gossip or chatting. The main activity of the Dajou is agriculture and husbandry. A group of the Dajou lives now in the areas of Garsillah to the southwestern part of Dar Massalit. As to the Tongor, there is the theory that they took over from the Dajou as elite group.
They now live in small group around the area of Kutum in north Darfur. Their only lingua franca is Arabic.
The nomadic and semi-nomadic tribal groups in Darfur:
This is biggest demographic group living in northwest Darfur. They live in the area along the western borderlines to the east and they are distinctive ethnically from the Arabs. The ethnographic studies show that they are related to the Tabu and they may have links with the Libyan Berber. The Zaghawa language is related to the Tabu language. The Zaghawa are nomadic group raising camels, sheep, and goats with small number of cows. They raise camels though the mountainous area they live in is not suitable for camels.
This ethnic group lives in the north most area of Darfur. Most of them live in the desert are in the region known as Anidi desert. The group extends up to the northwestern corner of the Sudan.
The Maidoob series of mountains which are found on the northeastern region of Darfur are known to be totally isolated, as to the north there is nothing but the desert. And so all along the centuries the only contact with the outside world was through the intermittent exchange of visits with the Kababeesh tribal nomadic groups or the Zagawa who come to the area to purchase salt extracted from the low land to the southwest of their area. They also have contacts with the caravans coming from Natroon Oasis to the north of Darfur. The Maidoob have permanent sources of water such as the wells, and the water springs found in the deep valleys in their areas.
The Maidoob raise sheep and goats and some cattle and camels. They are known to be semi nomads who move in the rainy season to the east up to the Wadi Malik which is also frequented by the Kababish tribal group.
The ethnic groups leading a life that
Depends on raising camels:
Zyadiah: those are to some extent the largest ethnic group with huge numbers of camels in their possession. They belong to the Fazara tribal groups that live on raising camels and they are brothers to the Dar Hamid tribal groups in Kordufan.
The settled groups:
Banu Fadul: this tribe lives in the eastern part of Darfur in an area extending from Tiwisha in the north to the Fashir and Jabal Hilla in the south. One third of the tribe migrated to Kordufan in the year 1904 and they settled around the area east of El Nuhoud while the rest who lived in small groups are still in the areas of central Darfur and near the western part of Kordufan state.
Missiriah: the Misssiriah occupy small areas between the Burgud and the Dajou in the northeastern areas of Nyala.
Ma‘aliah: the Ma‘aliah tribal group is considered to be kin to the Dar Hamid group in Kordufan region. They historically stand as the demarcation line between Darfur and Kordufan. The bulk of the tribe lived in the area in Darfur prior to the advent of Mahadism but then during the Mahadia they started an organized movement to the areas inside Kordufan region.
The Nomads, Cattle Raisers
The tribal groups specialized in raising cattle are known as the Baggara tribal group. The word Baggara is used to describe the nomads and semi nomads who live in the area between 13-10 latitudes and which extend from the town of el El-Obied up to the Lake Chad area. In Darfur there are four main tribal groups under this name:-
Rizzaigat: these are the most famous and the richest of the Baggara tribe and they occupy an area of about 12 thousands miles in the northeastern part of Darfur and they are subdivided into three groups namely the Mahiria in the east and the north, the Nuwabia in the west and the Mahameed in the north. Habaniah: they live in Darfur and in Kordufan regions to the west of the areas occupied by the Rizzaigat in an area one third of that inhabited by the Rizzaigat. This tribe is less nomadic than the Baggara and they are divided into two subgroups the Narrah and the Soot.
Taaysha: they live to the West of the Habaniah with whom they are affiliated in kinship. They occupy southwestern area of Darfur. The main two sub tribal groups are the Galladah and Areek. The Taiasha was one of the strongest tribal groups during the days of Khalifat of Mahadi, Abdullah. Thousands of the Taiasha were convinced into moving to the Omdurman and although many of them returned back to their homeland, still they were not able to restore that authority and power they used to have as their area was known to have low population density.
Banu Halba: the Banu Halba lives in the area north of the Taiaisha and during the Egyptian Turkish condominium they used to be one of the biggest and the richest tribal groups.
The Political Axis
At the peak of the negotiation between the government and the Sudan People‘s Liberation Movement (SPLM), aimed at the realization of peace in the Sudan, a new nucleus of conflict surged in the region of Darfur. The repercussions of that conflict reached the point of occupying the area of headquarters of Jabel Mara and of lowering down the Sudanese flag by the rebel groups who then hoisted another flag and killed a number of armed forces troops as well as the director of the Jabal Mara project.
That movement called itself the Darfur Liberation Movement and then it shifted and adopted a new name known as the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA). On the 24 of February 2003 reports talked of rebel troops occupying the area of Golo in north Darfur and that they hoisted their own flag in that area after lowering down the official national flag and that they appointed a commissioner. On his part General Ibrhaim Suleiman, the then governor of North Darfur state and the chairman of the mechanism for security in the states of Darfur, denied that the rebels had occupied the area or hoisted their flag therein.
On the 27th of March 2003 the Sudanese government put its forces in Darfur at a state of full alert following the death of four persons and the injury of others in an attack led by the armed men in the area of Tinah on the borderline with Chad where they killed and looted properties of citizens and then they fled away on land cruiser pick ups.
These developments led the government to declare the state of alert in all the region of Darfur. Then the minister of interior, Major General Abdul Rahim Mohamed Hussein arrived to the town of El Fashir from where he left to Chad in the company of the governor of north Darfur state general Ibrahim Suleiman whereas the general Adam Hamid the governor of South Darfur entered into intensive meetings along with his associates on means of countering possible military operations to be implemented by the rebels.
In April 28 this same group led an aggression along with
another group known as the Justice and Equality Movement against the town of El Fashir. They burned down seven planes which were docked at the el Fashir airport and they killed some 75 troops and took captive senior air forces general. They also killed and wounded a number of civilians and spread fear and chaos in the town and its suburbs.
The defense minister Maj. Gen. Bakri Hassan Salih told the parliament in an unprecedented session which was attended by the First Vice President and the Secretary General of the National Congress Party as well as twenty federal ministers and three governors and which was devoted to the events in Darfur that the outlaws killed 75 troops from the Sudanese army and that some 32 were taken captives including a senior army officer. The parliament condemned the aggression and the looting and killing and considered the groups that attacked Fashir town as representing no tribal groups but themselves and that they were only groups of thugs. It called on the government to eliminate them. The first vice president Ali Osman Mohamed Taha insisted that the state authority should prevail and that laws should be applied. He promised to restore stability and security for all the people of Darfur..
The defense minister meanwhile said the state was in full control of the situation. On May 11 2003 the rebel Movement led another attack on the town of Milit on the northern part of north Darfur killing some 27 soldiers and they fled away.
On its part the government of Sudan continued to pursue and advocate for the peaceful solution for the question of Darfur. Professor Ibrahim Ahmed Omar the Secretary General of the National Congress party said following a high level meeting by the government officials that the government had decided to resolve al the questions of the three Darfur states via peaceful negotiated means
and that the whole issue would be contained and calm would be restored and at the same time the area would be spared any military solution for the problem. He said a meeting of the ruling National Congress which was
attended by the First Vice President and a number of senior government officials had reviewed the question of Darfur in details and that the government was keen to find a solution to all the problems from which the region suffers. He pointed out in press statements that meeting reviewed recommendations submitted by a committee that visited the persons who were taking refuge in the mountains and the opposition.
A conference held under the auspices of the mechanism set by the state to restore the state authority has recommended that a solution be found for the frictions between nomads and farmers in the region and that this should not be used for political ends. They also recommended fair representation of the sons of Darfur within the federal apparatus and that a commission for the development of Darfur be established concentrating on the infrastructures.
The conference also called for the rehabilitation of the villages destroyed by the unrest there and that those who incurred any losses be compensated. The recommendations also called for a just and equal sharing of power and wealth in the country. The government also took note of the armed robberies and of the phenomenon of wide insecurity witnessed by the region saying that measures be taken so that it would not spread and threaten the country’s security.
The killing of Ahmed Yusuf Director of the Jebel Marra project in west Darfur while he was driving his family along the Nyala-Zalingai road when armed men opened fire and killed them all, an alarming event. And it was only one of hundreds of such incidents committed by the outlaws and armed robbery gangs who used to held civilians, policemen and local government authorities as captives. The mechanism headed by General Ibrahim Suleiman, the then governor of North Darfur State, held a number of consultative meetings in Khartoum and in Nyala and in Fashir in the presence of he minister of interior and the Governors of the three states of Darfur and local government officials and the elites in a view to finding a solution for the Darfur question acting on the understating that no one knew the region better than its own people. The latest of these encounters was held in the town of Fashir. The encounter condemned the looting and the armed robbery and called on the state to act with firm hand and end these acts.
The current governor of North Darfur Osman Yusuf Kibir and then member of the encounter had warned that the situation in Darfur was deteriorating and that the armed groups in Darfur and particularly in the area of Jabal Mara had now bypassed the stage of armed robbery and that they were currently moving into a rebellion against the state and that they were doing so with the assistance of the some internal and foreign elements.
He revealed that the armed groups were still holding some Darfur leaderships sent by the government to negotiate with them as captives and that those included Mr. Habeeb Fadul Salih Yahia and Ali Mohamed Abdullah and two other policemen A Sudanese opposition party leader ad meanwhile said the Darfur question was no longer a local question and that in actual fact it is related to foreign developments.
The current Darfur question started as s local conflict between nomads and farmers over grazing areas but it quickly developed into a major political question where superpower and international organizations intervened and the foreign media had helped in bringing it to the forefront as a question that threatens the international peace and security. It is known that the people of Darfur are either farmers or nomads. These are the two main professions in the area. The nomads move in vast areas along the rich savanna up to the semi- desert and desert climate and therefore the green cover varies. Water is prevalent according to the season and this necessitates movement of the nomads in search of water and food for their animals. This causes friction between the various farmers and nomads. However those frictions used to be resolved by the locals in their meetings headed by the tribal chief and the traditional leadership. But with the climatic change of desert creep and desertification the frication increased between the farmers and the nomads over grazing areas. Most of the tribal groups in Darfur have affiliations and extension with Chad and with the Central African
Republic and the borderline are almost non-existent. And for sure there are population movement from those countries and to those countries with Darfur. For centuries there is continued population movement within West African and eastward up to Ethiopia a matter that led to the security breaches and the political development in the neighboring countries affect Darfur through the history of the region and particularly the two countries of Chad and of Central African Republic.
A number of the citizens of these countries moved and lived in the region of Darfur and in particular citizens from the Central African Republic and Chad. This whole area which extends up the Senegal and Gambia on the Atlantic Ocean and to the east up to Ethiopia was known as the Sudan historically.
As a result of the tribal composition of Darfur some 85% of the tribal conflicts in the country take place in Darfur.
Another reason in addition to the tribal diversity that led to the escalation of the conflict is the introduction of big quantities of weapons into this region.
The factors which led to the spread of weapons in the region include arming of the tribes that neighboring the southern Sudan during the third democracy period. Another factor is the external conflicts such as the Libyan-Chadian conflict and Chadian-Chadian conflict that led to the boom of weapons trade. The continuation of the civil war in southern Sudan for more than two decades had also led to the spread of weapons. The use of advanced weapons by the armed robbery gangs deteriorated the position furthermore. On the other hand, Darfur has been subjected to political polarization during the various democratic rule periods on tribal bases a matter that led to the creation of distrust among the tribes. Meanwhile, the Great Darfur witnessed the renowned drought spell of the 1970s and 1980s that led to famine and hence population mobility. One of the negative impacts of this mobility was the emergence of armed organizations which have different goals. Some aims at protecting the tribe and its interests while others found support from some of the region’s intellectuals outside the country who exploited the events for their own interests and/or political interests.
The government exerted tremendous efforts to conduct reconciliation between the tribes and to collect the weapons. Following are examples of the reconciliation agreements that have been struck during the last decade:-
Gimir and Zagawa, Berti and Maidoub, Awlad Monsoor and Awlad Gide Muhria tribe),Muhria and Beni Halba, Al-Rezaiqat and Maalya, Qimir and Falata and Zagawa and Mima. These examples give indicators that the conflict in Darfur is not dispute between Arab and non-Arabs but it is in fact a tribal conflict.
The Root Causes behind Darfur Problem
Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) : Darfur Sector
The majority of members of SLM are affiliated to Zaghawa sub tribe of Turand its activities confinedat Dar (area) of zaghawa (Ambaro, Kornoy Abu Qamra and Al-Tina).
The first leader of the movement was Abdallab Abakar who was killed and succeeded by Abdel-Wahid Mohammed Nur and Arko Minawi as secretary-general. In November, 2005 the movement split and Arko Miniawi became the chairman of the movement.
The group began with local demands with no political dimensions, but the situations changed dramatically after some elements of the Popular Congress, such as Suliaman Gamous and Abubakar Hamid joined the SLA and that the decisions of the movement were influenced by foreign circles.
Justice And Quality movement (JEM)JEM Which is led by Dr. Khalil Ibrahim represents another branch of Zaghawa tribe which is known as Kobi at the areas of Kulbus, Girgira,Tundobaya at the strips of Sudanese-Chadian borders. At the beginning the movement sought balanced development in region but it was apparent recently that it adopted agenda of the Popular Congress Party and succeeded in making military and political coordination with SLM, triggering the conflict and intimidating the people along with posing threats to their lives and properties.
This group also played a significant role in making a failure the N’djamena talks by forwarding issues that had not been included in Abache framework agreement signed on 3, September 2003 between the government of Sudan and SLM.
Democratic Federation It was one of political parties in the third democratic era in Sudan. The founder of the party is Ahmed Ibrahim Draig, a former governor of Darfur who is affiliated to Fur tribe.
DF joined the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) but the organization has a faction led by Dr. Sharif Harir pursued a different way of work by using violence and fighting as means of reaching to power.
Backing Darfur rebels, Dr. Harir organized training sessions for some cadres of the party on fighting to achieve his goals.
National Movement for Reform
And Development (NMRD)
NMRD is deserted from the JEM’s military faction in Darfur with pretext that JEM has agenda other than Darfur and that their agenda is focused on Darfur. NMRD members are affiliated to Zaghawa tribe and that their number is estimated between one to three thousand fighters.
Darfur People’s Participation in the Constitutional Offices Statistics show that the three states of Darfur are among the most states of Sudan assuming constitutional offices; presidential Advisor for African Affairs, seven federal ministers, four governors, a member of the constitutional court and a member of the Supreme Court in addition to chairing of several committees at the National Assembly.
As regard to peace process in South Sudan and Nuba Mountains area the three Darfur states participated by ten persons in the process with its different stages.
Peace Process in Darfur
Despite the government several initiatives on ceasefire, situations was complicated by the international involvement. Since mid 2002, the government has exerted successive and extensive endeavors to address the issue of Darfur. As part of that effort, a committee from people of Darfur delegated a power of President was formed for handling the situation, and two conferences for Fur tribe in Jebel Marra were held in the same year along with holding a comprehensive conference for the people of Darfur in 2003 in El-Fashir, the capital of Northern Darfur State. In February and March of the same year, the government dispatched three delegations to talk with them after that direct negotiations with rebels began from Abache to Abuja.
When Nigerian President and the Chairman of the African Union Obasanjo quickly moved to find solution to the problem and to prevent international interventions, the government of Sudan accepted the mediation as a result to that six rounds of peace negotiations between the government and the rebel movements were held.
Government of Sudan has made considerable efforts to peacefully contain the problem.
Many contacts with the arm holders have been made by the government since the beginning of the rebellion in the region but foreign interventions complicated the problem.
This local issue has found unprecedented concern by media that gave a chance for foreign interventions which affected the issue.
To contain the problem, President of the Republic Omer Al-Bashir issued a political declaration on June 30, 2004 calling for disarming all irregular armed groups in Darfur.
Moreover, a series of meetings were held in Abache and N’djamena to seek peaceful solution to the issue.
President of the Republic Omer Al-Bashir also formed a national fact-finding committee on violations in Darfur.
Though the conference came out with recommendations and pledges, rebels attacked a police station at Tarni in northern Darfur two days before the convocation of the conference, then Kabkabiya in which 19 persons, among them civilians and children, were killed.
On 20 March they assaulted areas of Abuqamra and Ambaro and seized police weapons at Ambaro.
Al-Tina attacked in which director of custom duty was killed.
The Security Committee chaired by Gen. Ibrahim Suleiman worked for formulating a peaceful solutions through talks. Governor of Western Darfur sent a delegation to meet arms holders in Jebel Mara on 13 December 2002 in addition to delegation of Dr. Babied Near and engineer Abdullah Masar in July 2003. according to some sources the total of the local initiatives for containing the crisis reached 28.
The negotiations marathon between the government and Darfur rebels launched on 26 August 2003. The government and the arms holders in Darfur signed what has been known as Abache Agreement on 3 September, 2004, which was the fruit of series of meetings the National Congress Deputy Secretary- General Al-Shafie Ahmed Mohammed held in the Netherlands with Dr. Khalil Ibrahim, Dr. Sharif Harir and with Deputy Secretary-General of the Popular
Congress the party repeatedly accused by the government of indulging in Darfur events, Dr. Ali Al- Haj Mohammed .
In that agreement, commander of the Western 12 Military Area Madigan. is mat Mustafa signed for government of Sudan and Abdalla Abakar for the rebels.
But the JEM rejected the agreement renewed after 45 days and known as Abache Second Agreement where former director of Intelligence and chairman of the government delegation Maj. Gen. Abdel-Karim Abdalla signed on behalf of government of Sudan and Abdalla Doli for the rebels.
In April 2004 talks between the government and rebels moved to the Chadian capital of N’djamena under sponsorship of the President of Chad Addris Deby where the two parties signed N’djamena agreement, then the talks moved to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, but the round of talks collapsed in its first hour because the rebels withdrew from the sitting of the talks.
Within less than two years, the government and the two main armed movements in Darfur held a series of talks to put an end to the problem over-inflated by the international media despite the government strong rejection to internationalization of the issue.
Abache September 2003
In response to initiative of the Chadian President Addris Deby, the government engaged in negotiations with the rebels in September 2003 and that the split among the main armed movements was the biggest obstacle faced such talks.
This round of talks were held amid escalation of military activities in Jebel Marra and in some areas of Northern Darfur State targeting government institutions, police stations and armed forces a matter which obliged the government to stop their growing military activities.
Before the problem mixed with political agenda, the influence of the Chadian President Addris Debby on the armed groups was strong, thus, Abache Agreement was purely security and military agreement in which political demands and maneuvers disappeared.
Several points of understanding were reached in Abache first meeting top of them were ceasefire, formation of a follow-up committee and assembling the rebel’s forces in known places, a point which was rejected by JEM though earlier in the year, it signed memorandum of understanding with the government on March 28, 2003 in Paris.
Some Features of Abache Accord
Under auspices of the Chadian government Abache Agreement was signed on 3 September, 2003 where Commander of the Western Military Area signed on behalf of government of Sudan and the rebels’ field commander signed for the SLA.
The agreement aimed to achieve two fundamental principles:-
- To make the situations conducive for realizing security.
- To cease-fire which was to come into effect before the date set on 6 September, 2003 by President of
The Republic‘s Initiative.
The agreement started with ceasefire and cessation of hostilities, and controlling the armed groups at the operation zones. And in order to increase credibility, the government released all detainees who involved in Darfur incidents.
Formation of a 15-member committee with five members for each one of the three parties to follow-up implementation of the agreement. The government provided the committee with means of contacts and transport to help it performs its task. Maj. Gen. Magzoub Rahma was named chairman of government delegation to the tripartite committee which started meeting on Sunday, September 7, 2003.
The agreement included the following:-
- The following would be put in effect within 45 days:
- Ceasefire will be in effect as of 6 September, 2003,
at 18:0o (Sudan local time).
- Determining the positions of the military forces
- Formation of a tripartite committee.
In case of arising differences over the agreement, the third party (the Chadian government) is to help the two parties reach a compromise. The peace agreement in Darfur is important step in the process of development and stability in a region which has witnessed severe tribal conflicts and economic hardships.
The President of the Republic described the ceasefire agreement as a real accomplishment via which the region says farewell to era of fighting and conflicts. The importance lessons learned from the problem was the possibly of peacefully resolving our internal disputes.
In fact, despite the importance of the agreement and the political and popular support to the ceasefire agreement, the needs for dissemination of awareness of peace culture and peaceful coexistence as well as the need for restoration of social fabric seems necessary for an area being a scene for tribal conflicts and reprisals.
Abache Accord No.(2)
Abache agreement (2) is a complementary to Abache Agreement No. (1). It was held amid several political changes, in stances of the two main armed movements along with raising further demands beyond the previous agreement. Also, the influence of Dr. Ali Al-Haj , Suliaman
Gamous and Abubakar Hamid, two cadres of Popular
Congress was clear in Darfur and at the national level in addition to other factors that encouraged rebels to refuse meeting with the Chadian President Iddris Debby.
After that the negotiations were moved to N’djamena in December in the same year, some sources familiar to the negotiations said the Chadian President held Darfur rebels responsible for the failure of the talks, saying it was an opportunity lost by rebels due to extreme stances and impossible demands.
He announced abandonment of his sponsorship to talks and ordered immediate transport of Darfur rebels via special aircraft to the Sudanese borders.
Abache Talks No. (2)
The second round of peace talks between the government of Sudan and SLM was held in Abache from October 26 to November 2003 under auspices of the government of Chad.
The two parties agreed to: - Continue cease-fire between the two parties and stop all forms of hostilities.
- renew confidence in the tripartite committee
- Give 30 days ultimatum to SLA to bring appendixes
mentioned in 2003 Agreement.
- assure freedom of movements of individuals
- allow the national and international organizations to enter into the war affected areas.
Failure Of Abache Peace Talks The SLA delegation came into the last round of talks with view differed to spirit of Abache Agreement, demanding measures contradicting the content of the agreement. It was expected that discussions continue to reach to a final agreement but the rebels surprised observers by presenting impossible demands which could not be met. Despite efforts made by the President of Chad, the rebels stuck to their positions to the degree President Debby expelled them to the Sudanese borders. After that the rebels carried out some sabotage acts targeting civilians and infrastructure.
The government determined to hold talks with rebels to cease the bloodshed, so that it showed flexibility but the rebels. Obstinacy continued.
And in the framework of government efforts to find atmosphere conducive for negotiations, the President of the
Republic declared cessation of military operations in Darfur as well as general amnesty.
N’djamena Meeting April 2004.
In this round of talks, the Western influence on rebels shadowed the Chadian role of mediation and that some differences began to emerge between Dr. Khalil Ibrahim and some field commanders and that Darfur file became the issue of the international media. The international pressure backing rebels increased with pretext of worsening humanitarian situations in Darfur.
The important fact is that N’djamena meeting concluded despite pressures mentioned above, by signing a ceasefire agreement in April, 2004.
Addis Ababa Talks:
They were held in July 2005 in which the armed movements were represented by a low level delegation that aroused the anger of the African Union whose one of official was forced to say at that time: .
Darfur rebels should send their leaders to the negotiations. while AU‘ s Special Envoy and former Prime Minister of Niger Hamid Al-Ghabid said: ‘We truly want to hold talks with real representatives, so we will ask them(armed movements) to come to the coming meeting with a high-ranking delegation that could take decision.
Abuja Peace Talks
The Chadian initiative enlarged to African Union initiative that called all parties to the Darfur conflict to talks in the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa in July 2004.
After that, the Nigerian capital of Abuja witnessed on August 23 to September 18, 2004 a round of peace talks which was nearly to reach to a protocol on humanitarian affairs, but the armed movements reserved in the last moment. The second round of peace talks was convened on October 21, 2004 in Abuja which ended in the signing of protocols on security and humanitarian affairs.
The third round of Abuja Peace talks was held on December, 2004 amid military escalation in the ground along with exchange of accusations between the parties of breaching the ceasefire agreement that led to stalemate of the talks which were scheduled to look into the political aspect of the issue.
The rebels entered into the round of Abuja Peace talks with their previous strategy which is based on presenting points that complicate the situations and with splits among Sudan Liberation Movement‘s leadership.
UN, AU, and the United States of America made great efforts to help SLM overcome differences and to enter into the peace talks with united vision.
Framework Protocol on Resolution of Darfur Conflict
In negotiations held in Abuja under the auspices of the African Union, the government and SLM and Justice and Quality Movement (JEM) signed in May 2005 a framework agreement on resolution of conflict of Darfur in which all parties to the conflict reiterated their commitment to N‘djamena Agreement signed on April 8 2004, ceasefire and agreement on deployment of observers signed in Addis Ababa on May 28, 2004 in addition to the humanitarian and security protocols signed in Abuja on November 9, 2004.
The declaration also included cessation of hostilities and agreement of parties to directly enter into final and comprehensive ceasefire and that the ceasefire should be monitored by 2004 N‘djamena Agreement.
The protocol acknowledged that Naivasha Peace Agreement is a distinguished step towards reaching peace and that it could be used as a model for achievement of peace the countrywide.
The protocol stipulated the following general principles:-
a. Affirming the unity of Sudan and citizenship as the basis for civil and political rights.
b. Adopting federalism as system of government along with fair distribution of power between the central government and the states.
c. Taking legal actions against those who have been accused of violating human rights and compensating the affected people and providing humanitarian aid to refugees and displaced persons as well as helping them return homes.
d. Encouraging reconciliation, and reactivating native mechanisms of conflict resolution.
Sixth Round Of Abuja Peace Talks
The six round of Abuja peace talks between the government of Sudan and the armed movements in Darfur sponsored by the African Union kicked off on September 15, 2005.
In this round of negotiations, the government delegation was the same delegation the government dispatched to the fifth round of Abuja peace talks that ended in June 2005.
SLM participated in this talks which last for four weeks by a delegation led by the leader of the movement Abdel-Wahid Mohammed Nur.
Earlier, agreement on arrangements of the round was reached to in meetings held in Tanzania for forming a joint committee comprising heads of delegations participating in the talks to be a reference for resolving problems arising during the negotiations.
AU presented in September 2005 compromise paper for the government of Sudan and the armed movements in Darfur to negotiate over it. The government announced its agreement to talk on issues presented in the AU paper along with reservations on some issues until they agree with CPA, interim constitution, opinions of the people of Darfur and to agree with the views of all people of Sudan.
Seventh Round of Abuja Peace Talks The seventh round of Abuja peace talks began at the end of November 2005 under patronage of the African Union amid determination of the government of Sudan, AU and international community’s to be a conclusive one.
AU Chief Mediator Salem Ahmed Salem said in speech he delivered to the inaugural sitting that the peace process has reached a decisive stage and that the international community follows it and wants it final.
Delegations of the government and the armed movements reached an agreement on principles of wealth sharing on December 13, 2005 as well as agreement on federal financial relations and criteria of wealth sharing on December 17, 2005.
Also, the Power Sharing Committee discussed in addition to special situations of Darfur the issue of the presidency, national capital, and Darfur borders.
President of the Republic Declaration on Darfur President of the Republic issued a political declaration for achievement of stability in Darfur. He appointed representative for the President in the region for normalizing the situations there. In related developments, some leaders of Darfur rebels began freely returning in the framework of general pardon announced by President of the Republic.
National Congress and National Umma Party
Shared Vision Through dialogue on agenda of just peace and transformation into democracy, the two parties
Shared a common vision for resolving Darfur issue.
During June 29 to July 3, 2005, UN Secretary- General Kofi Annan paid visit to Sudan and Darfur during which the government and UN agreed on cooperation and realization of peace in the region.
Under auspices of the President of the Republic of Chad backing by the Chairman of the African Commission and in the presence of international observers, the Government of Sudan, SLM and JEM signed the N‘djamena Ceasefire Agreement on April 8, 2004.
Protocol On Humanitarian Aid Access To Darfur This was signed in N‘djamena on August 8 , 2004 by the government of Sudan, SLM and JEM.
Protocol on security was signed by the government.
Initiatives for Resolving Darfur Crisis of Sudan, SLM and JEM for improving security situations in Darfur according to N ’ d j a m e n a Agreement.
Government- NMRD Agreement Under auspices of the the Chadian President Addris, the government of Sudan and the National Movement for Reform and Development(NMRD) signed an agreement for finding a lasting peaceful solution to Darfur problem through negotiations.
The Comprehensive Conference Of Darfur People With participation of over 2000 participants representing party leaders, native administration, international and regional organizations and diplomatic missions, the comprehensive conference of the Darfur people was held during December 19- 21, 2005 in El-Fashir, the capital of the Northern Darfur State .
The conference which looked into four fundamental axes; economic development, political, social and humanitarian axes, was held in implementation of a political document signed by the political forces in November 2005 in Khartoum.
The conference concluded session and issued its final recommendations which called for ceasefire, protection of citizens, and their properties by the government.
The recommendations called for the necessity of participation of Darfur people in the presidency and the federal government institutions as well as participation in the different sectors of civil services and in the public financial and economic institutions.
It was apparent from the beginning that the African states had no desire to follow the western attitudes towards developments of Darfur issue for two reasons, first, these countries had good relations with Sudan, the second is that the instability of Sudan may negatively affect many African countries. Yet, these countries had found its goal in AU which stands as barrier to ambitions that want to exploit the problem and that AU has been put in a test to show its effectiveness and capability to what extent it could serve the continent.
The movements and following up of the progress of the crisis by the Chairman of the African Commission Alpha Omer Konari was very clear in this regard and the Sudan accepted the African intervention because, AU is a fence that protects Sudan from foreign interference.
It is worth mentioning that moves of all armed movements showed disapproval to attempts being made by AU to contain the crisis. Moreover, it was apparent that the rebels sought greater role for European AU Role In Darfur
Union, United States of America and UN in the issue though AU is the nearer to the scene of the problem, more neutral in its vision and more objective in its judgments in addition to the interests of AU in finding a decisive and urgent solution to the problem for the sake of interests of the peoples of the continent and for succeeding in the test.
Therefore, AU was present from onset of negotiations and pledged to monitor and sponsor the negotiations.
It dispatched, monitors along with peacekeeping force. It was due to Sudanese wisdom that many international circles have accepted the AU’s role.
Positive Cooperation with UN and AU Despite of Sudan’s reservation on resolution number 1556, Sudan stance was characterized by the positive cooperation with the United Nations and the African Union. The government of Sudan exerted successive efforts to confront the situation in Darfur which represented in:-
1. Address of the President of the Republic on June 18, 2004 in which he issued a political declaration for arrangement of situations and realization of stability in Darfur. The address contained: - Mobilization of all organs for boosting security and stability by pursuing all unruly
Groups, rebels, janjaweed, tora bora and Bashmrqa.
Establishment of prosecutions and courts to try gangs of armed robbery and criminals.
Deployment of police force to protect localities and to secure return of displaced persons to their homes providing the requirements of the agricultural season.
Implementation of a crash development and provision of basic needs program Launching a comprehensive mobilization concerning repatriation of displaced people along with providing them with food, shelters, clothes, and drugs.
A call for special comprehensive conference on Darfur. 2. Dispatching of 8000 policemen with 100
Vehicles to Darfur and sending another batch until the number reaches 30, 000. 3. Formation of a fact-finding committee on violations of human rights in Darfur.
a. Arresting janjaweed militia and outlaws.
b. Providing aid to IDPs and to the affected people.
c. Facilitating the movements of foreigners working in the
d. Facilitating entries of foreign journalists and correspondents of the foreign media to Sudan and to Darfur states.
e. Providing needs of the agricultural season in Darfur
f. Concern with development in the Darfur.
g. Positive cooperation with the UN and AU to give the international community an opportunity to contribute to solving the situations in Darfur as well as positive dealing with resolution of the Security Council No. 1556 in addition to signing an action plan with Special Representative of UN Secretary-General in Sudan Jan Pronk with aim of finding a conducive circumstances for restoring peace, security and stability.
h. A call for peaceful solution to the problem by showing good faith and sitting with rebels for seriously talks for seeking lasting solutions to Darfur crisis.
The National Salvation Revolution attached great importance to balanced development among the various regions of Sudan, so it adopted federal government based on dividing the countries into states to enable the people take part in the government.
Darfur was divided into three states, northern, western, and southern. When rebellion erupted in Darfur, the government did not stand idly but tried to handle the situations through wisdom to put off the fire and at the same time it worked for protecting the citizens and their properties. In the meantime, the government endeavored
to ceasefire to enter into negotiations with the rebel factions with aim of putting an end to the exceptional situations.
The government earmarked 30 million dollars for implementation of water projects in Darfur
but impeded by rebels. The UN and the international community also had a plan of 1.5 billion dollars for the year 2005 for the war-affected areas in which the Darfur states are included. There are 58 national organizations operating in Darfur and playing a vital role in the field of sanitation, nutrition, psychological and social rehabilitation and voluntary repatriation programs which supported over 320 thousand returnees.
Moreover, the sanctions imposed on Sudan posed a hurdle to improvement of situations in Darfur for Sudan banned from spare parts of railways which is the first means of transport in the region compared with the high cost of other means of transport.
First; Basic Services Education Statistics show growing in the number of basic and secondary schools as well as the number of students (both male and female), for example, there was 241 basic schools in the years 1967-68 went up to 353 schools in the period 1977-78, 627 schools in the period 1988-89 to reach in 2000-
Development and Humanitarian Aid Axis
Comparison of increase rate of schools in Darfur of the period 1967/68 ≠ 2001 Primary schools Intermediate schools Secondary schools Increase rate in 67/68 to 1977/78 46% 214% 150% Increase rate in 1988/89 to 67/68 80% 59% 120% Increase rate in 2000/001 to 1988/89 206% - 167%.
Health Services In The Greater Darfur
The number of hospitals in the three Darfur states went up from 16 in 1988 to 23 hospitals in 2003 and the dispensaries increased in the same period from 20 to 44 as well as increase of laboratories from 16 to 70 in the same period.
About 40% of international airports outside capital of Khartoum are found in Darfur. There are three international airports, El-Fashir, Nyala and Zalingai and 3 runways, Al-Dein, Zalingai and Nagama Roads and Telecommunications Before 1989, there were no any roads in all Darfur states except parts of Nyala- Kas- Zalingai Road. The situation that led the government to think in construction of Western Al- Ingaz Road to link Khartoum with some parts of Kordofan states with Darfur states passing through Obied town-Al Khoyei- Nuhud-Om Kaddada- Fashir- Nyala- Zalingai- Geneina. The length of the road is 796 km. 2001 some 786 basic schools in addition to 1455 schools adopting co-education system that brought the total number of basic schools in the three Darfur states to 2231.
The secondary schools increased from two schools in the 1967-68 to 195 schools in the year 2000-001 allover Darfur three states.
Institutes and computer centers entered after 1995 in the schools of the Darfur states, where there are 90 institutes and computer centers in Northern Darfur state, 40, in Southern Darfur and 20 in Western Darfur state.
In respect of high education, Darfur witnessed in 1990, for the first time, establishment the first university in the region, University of El-Fashir, then Universities of Zalengai and Nyala in 1994. These universities included faculties of medicines, health sciences, natural resources engineering, education, agriculture, and other faculties.
Major parts of bridges and earth embankments were implemented and some others were inaugurated. So the movement and transport to and from Darfur states became easy.
In the field of internal roads, there were a number of roads being constructed after 1989 in southern Darfur states. The total length of these roads is 20 km across Nyala town. Also, 8.5 km of roads were built in northern Darfur state. Moreover, studies were conducted for construction of new roads including Fashir-Maleet road, Fashir-Om Kaddada road and Fashir - Dar El Salam road.
With respect to telecommunication, Darfur states witnessed a leap in this field.
The Sudanese Telecommunication Company (Sudatel) covered with its services the capitals of Darfur states and localities besides services of Sudanet Company of the Internet.
Also, Mobile phone Company (Mobitel) extended it services to Darfur states. Comparing the situation of telecommunication services before 1989 to which existed in 2002, the result reflects the wide distance between the two periods. Ghazala Jawazt Research station for Animal breeding and improvement of pastures.
Objectives Of The Station
In 1946, the committee of External trade recommended importance of establishing department of pasture research. The location of Ghazala Jawazt was selected to be a research station because it was found the best and appropriate place after a survey being made by soil experts at that time.
The station commenced its activities with two sections:-
(a) Animal production and health section
(b) Irrigation research section
The station was officially inaugurated in 1964. It is located 21 kms northwest of Deian town. The land road of Obied-Nyala is passing through the station besides Khartoum-Nyala railway. The area of the station amounts to 5310 hectares
Second: The field of Humanitarian aid The humanitarian situations in Darfur which have attracted the attention of international circles has remained and still remains as the main concern of the government of Sudan.
Since the outbreak of the crisis in Darfur in 2003, the government extended more than 151 billion Dinars in the form, of duty exemption and aviation services for the international organizations working along side Sudan to over-come the crisis.
The Sudanese private sector and the national organizations, contributed hundreds of millions of dinars to the humanitarian work in Darfur. The government exempted more than 800 million dollars of taxation. All of what have been mentioned above could be a balance for development in Darfur instead of being spent in the solution of the humanitarian crisis which has been created by the rebels.
The international community also extended 700 million dollars to the affected people.
The government exerted much effort in the field of humanitarian work to provide aid to the affected people in Darfur. But development of the crisis and the increasing number of displaced people forced the government to urge the international community to provide more aid to put an end to the crisis.
The government also extended facilities in the field of transport to convoys of relief besides providing of security to the project of secured villages.
Within the context of government efforts to alleviate the crisis in Darfur, the organizations of civil society were availed the opportunity to contribute to the development of Darfur. A republican decree was issued on formation of a national committee for the development and rehabilitation of Darfur under chairmanship of the General Federation of Sudanese Businessmen. The committee embarked on its work with repatriation of the refugees and resettlement in their areas besides plans and programs related to the implementation of its tasks.
The efforts of the government came out with initiative led by the national voluntary organizations, United Nation, and international voluntary organizations as well as generous support of donors. Therefore, humanitarian aid reached all affected people in Darfur during different stages. The prompt response, high efficiency and unprecedented effectiveness showed by the parties contributed to alleviate the effects of crisis involving 600,000 displaced persons and 28,000 refugees in Chad. In this respect, the government of Sudan highly appreciated the support and noble stance of donors and all humanitarian workers in Darfur. These efforts also gained satisfaction of the affected persons in Darfur and the civil society, who in turn formed Darfur Network for Peace and Development which includes 26 members of local organizations which are now contributing in the leadership of humanitarian work and support of social peace initiatives.
To guarantee the flow of aid, the government worked through tripartite committee which was formed to implement Abache Accord. The agreement which was signed by the government and the rebel movements in Darfur stipulates protection of convoys transporting aid and relief, guarantee the safety of aid workers, security of citizens and facilitate the voluntary repatriation of refugees. On 29/6/2004, President of the Omer Al-Bashir affirmed in his address to the Sudanese Nation on the occasion of the Salvation Revolution, readiness of the government to exert the utmost efforts to relief the war-affected people in Darfur.
He announced commitment of the government of availing resources for the relief of the affected people besides doubling administrative, technical and security efforts to guarantee arrival of humanitarian aid to the needy.
The total amount of humanitarian aid distributed in Darfur till December 2003, amounted to 25,000 tons of food stuff and nonfood stuff materials. The details of which are:-
• The federal government represented in the Ministries of Humanitarian Affairs, National Economy and Finance and Health besides strategic stock administration and zakat chamber, provided humanitarian aid including 12,000 tons of foodstuff, medicines, water , blankets and other materials.
• In addition to a project of water financed by the Islamic Development Bank. The cost of the project amounts to 27 million dollars covering all parts of Darfur.
• The world Food Programme (WFP) extended 9870 tons of food stuff financed by US Aid, to the affected people in northern and southern Darfur.
• The European Union provided 5000 tons of Foodstuffs.
• International Committee of the Red Cross extended non food stuff materials (medicines, blankets, etc.) to 40,000 persons.
• The MSF organizations, the Netherlands, provided non food stuff materials (medicines, blankets etc) to the affected people in Zalingai and Nyala (4000 persons).
• The Sudanese Red Cross society extended Non-foodstuff materials to 25,000 affected people which were financed by the Spanish and German Red Cross Societies.
• French MSF provided 40 tons of medicines and other materials, to the affected people in Nyala and Wadi Salih sufficient for 6 months.
• The Swiss mid-air organization provided medical aid to the affected in Geneina.
• The World Health Organization (WHO) provided 40 tons of medicines, blankets and tents to the affected in Geneina.
• Oxfam organization provided non-foodstuff materials, to the affected people in Darfur.
• Food and Agriculture organization (FAO) of the United Nations provided 20 tons of agricultural equipment and seeds.
Agreements Signed by the Government in the
In addition to the political declaration which was issued by the President of the Republic for restoring stability in Darfur and his appointment of special representatives for these tasks, the government signed the following agreements:-
• The agreement between the government and the United Nations during the visit of the UN Secretary General to Sudan June 29 to July 3, 2004 on cooperation between Sudan and UN to restore stability and realize peace in Darfur.
• The agreement between the government of Sudan and the rebel movement in Darfur. It was signed on August 8, 2004 in N’djamena, Chad, on access of humanitarian aid to the affected people in Darfur.
• Security protocol between the government and the rebel movements in Darfur was also signed in N’djamena for the improvement of the security situation in Darfur.
In the field of health, there were no epidemic diseases. A campaign of immunization was implemented in Darfur States much better than other states of Sudan.
The government exerted all possible efforts for the solution of the humanitarian situations in Darfur and mobilized support from internal and external sources to face these situations. To meet this task, all national efforts were mobilized to provide all sorts of support concerning relief, medical and humanitarian aid to Darfur. The other states and national organizations of civil society contributed to those efforts besides opening the doors for foreign organizations to join these efforts.
The Security ad Justice Field
Following the increasing operations of the armed robbery and aggressions against the citizens and the regular forces in Darfur,
the government permitted the regular forces to defend against the attacks of the rebel movements. To reflect good intention, the government facilitated the movement of trucks convoying the aid to Darfur.
The government announced the end of military operation, in January 2004. It deployed more than 18,635 personnel of police forces for protection of cities, displaced
Camps and roads. The police forces also supported implementation of programmes of social peace, holding of reconciliation and prevalence of forgiveness.
The attack on Shi’eiriya:
The Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) attacked Shi’eiriya area on September 19, 2005. Some 41 people were martyred and others wounded in the attack. The rebels took possession of weapons and ammunition.
They also looted the property of the citizens, and intentionally set fire to some of it.
All the looted property was taken to Dar Al Salam area.
The attacking rebel force further besieged the African Union (AU) force. The town was then liberated by the Armed Forces after informing the AU.
The attack on Khazzan Jadeed Area An SLM 300-force launched an attack on Khazzan Jadeed area with a number of 5 land cruisers on the 20th and 21st of September. The armed forces in the area repelled the attack after 4 people were martyred and 18 others wounded.
Gouz Tabah incident on the 28th of September, a group of nomads attacked Gouz Tabah to retrieve cattle looted by a group of Miseiria elements and SLM. 29 people were killed in the attack. This incident angered the UN and the AU.
Taweda Area Incident On the 29th of September, a group of SLM attackers infiltrated into the area and seized a police car. The attack resulted in the killing of a number of citizens, and caused others to head for Al Fashir. This incident coincided with the presence of an administrative convoy of the Armed Forces on their way from Nyala to Al Fashir.
The Armed Forces administrative convoy did not attack, as mentioned in its statement dated October 1st.
The Attack on the AU Forces Brigade On the 8th of October, an SLM group attacked a military convoy of the mission of the African Union (AU).
The attack resulted in the killing of two Nigerian troops, the wounding of four others and the killing of two civilians belonging to a voluntary organization.
The attack was launched on the way between Khor Abasi and Nyala.
Capturing of some of the AU Personnel On the 9th of October:
A group of armed persons belonging to Mohamed Salih Harbah, who broke away from JEM, attacked a group of the African monitoring forces at Sas Dam south of Al Teena. The number of those abducted amounted to 18, all of whom were set free except two.
Summary of Rebel Violations during 2003
On the 27th of March, 2003, the rebels attacked an examination center at Al Tine violating the secrecy of the examinations, a matter which resulted in delaying them in all parts of Sudan. In April, armed elements assassinated director of Jabal Marra project Engineer Ahmed Yousif Abdallah Mahdi and his son on February 15, 2003 at Kobri Al Nahal.
On October 20, 2003, ten UN relief trucks were looted by Darfur armed elements at Kadateir, Jabal Mara. On November 7, 2003, Darfur armed .
Violations committed by the rebel movements
The rebels also raided Kalkal Dam and abducted Hamid Ali (police), his son and his bodyguard.
On November 18, 2003, the rebels of Darfur captured eight commercial trucks coming from Omdurman at Um Hijleej On February 21, 2003, the rebels assassinated Engineer Al Tayeb Abdellgader Al Nour, an official working for Sudatel, at Tour area, Jabel Marra.
On November 27, 2003, three vehicles On July 6, 2004, the minister of Interior, Presidential Representative in Darfur states, issued a number of decrees aimed at boosting security among the people of the area.
These Decrees Include:-
Decree No 1, 2004
Boosting security measures for the protection of the people in Darfur states.
Decree No 2, 2004
Opening police centers at camps in displacement areas.
Decree No 3, 2004
Providing due assistance to committees and to the African monitoring force.
Decree No 4, 2004
Deploying of armed forces, police force and security organs in Darfur states for establishing security in the area.
Decree No 5, 2004
Simplifying procedures of allowing entry visas for officials of voluntary organizations working in the field of humanitarian aid in Darfur states.
Decree No 6, 2004
Exempting humanitarian aid imports in Darfur states from all restrictions and customs duties.
Decree No. 7, 2004
Canceling procedural restrictions concerning the specifications of the humanitarian aid imports in Darfur states.
Decree No 8,
Facilitating the free movement of officials of the humanitarian aid organizations in Darfur states.
Decree No 9
Securing an easy flow of humanitarian aid to the displaced people in Darfur states.
Decree No 10, 2004
Expecting humanitarian aid imports in Darfur states from health and medical procedures.
Decree No 11, 2004
Exempting the agricultural inputs flowing to Darfur states from all restrictions and customs duties.
Decree No 12, 2004
Exempting humanitarian aid imports of Darfur states from all restrictions placed on import.
Decree No 15, 2004
Facilitating the duty of the fact-finding committee on the violations of human rights committed by the armed groups in Darfur states.