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أخر زيارة لك: 02-10-2014, 01:20 AM الرئيسية

مكتبة نصر الدين الهجام(Kostawi)الحوازمة--البقارة في جنوب كردفان: بقلم بريمة م آدم
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25-02-2006, 00:10 AM

Kostawi

تاريخ التسجيل: 04-02-2002
مجموع المشاركات: 33483
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الحوازمة--البقارة في جنوب كردفان: بقلم بريمة م آدم

    A True Journey Through Tribulent Time: Baggara At Cross Road In South Kordofan, Sudan (for the full reach the author at the following email)
    By Biraima M Adam Badam571@cs.com
    Baggara In South Kordofan
    Hawazma tribes, parts of Baggara, are cattle herders. They roam the area between southern parts of Northern Kordofan to southern borders of South Kordofan, a total length of approximately 300 kilometers. Through their nomadic movement, Hawazma knew the area, terrain, ethnic groups, local tribes, tribal cultures, ecosystems, climate, vegetation, existence of risks and diseases, and water resources than any inhabitant of the region. The term Baggara is a collective name applied to all cattle-herding tribes with Arabic roots. Cattle herders from Nuba tribes are not called Baggara. Cattle herders of middle and eastern Sudan, although they Arabic in roots, they are not Baggara. The Baggara occupies a wide area, from Kordofan, Mid-Western Sudan, to Darfur in the far Western Sudan and extending to neighboring Chad. They are collection of more than seven major tribes: Hawazma, Humr, Messiria, Rizagat, Ta?isha, Habaniyya. All Baggara have close physical characteristics, costumes, dance, religion, food, and in general a common culture and way of life. The Baggara are believed to have migrated to Sudan during early days of Islamic missionaries to the black continent, probably as early as in the 7th century. Most historians believe they belong to the Guhayna group; a clan of Bedouin Arabs migrated from Saudi Arabia. Baggara traditional historians tell their stories as they originally came from Arabian Peninsula to Egypt then following the River Nile until they settled on Jebel Awliyya ? part of Khartoum Province ? and as the grazing land became scarce and overcrowded they gradually moved to Western Sudan. These stories correspond well with the presence of scores of Hawazma on Kosti, Middle Sudan, Um Rowaba, Eastern part of Kordofan and Al Rahad, middle-eastern part of Kordofan. The journey continued beyond Kordofan, to Darfur on the Western Sudan and today they reached Chad, the country on western border of Sudan.
    Whenever Baggara settle they start a seasonal nomadic movement that goes from north to south, in a Round-Robin fashion according to the season and perpendicular to their historical migration route. Mostly they only follow two routes, one route from north to south and different route from south to north. But the routes are not far apart, and they are permanent, they never change them. Any tribe has its own routes. Hawazma are mostly found in routes originating from Al Obeid city ? in Northern Kordofan, run through Deling city and its eastern part, Kadugli city and its eastern part, to Talodi region. Messiria just borders them to the west. Humr borders Messiria to the west. And so forth. Today Baggara have little if no resemblance to Bedouin Arabs; due to their harmonization to the climate and the heavy inter-racial marriage with other African tribes who migrated to the region. Many of Hawazma subtribes have dark skin, and closely resemble Nuba tribes. And many members of these tribes speak Nuba's dialects fluently. Still some tribes acquired names indicative of their mixed origins. Other Hawazma subtribes have well preserved their Arabic features: light brown complexion, long dangling hairs, and a dense eye?s brows and lashes. When Hawazma family looses theirs herds it settle. Generally, Hawazma settled in villages or established villages from southern parts of Al Obeid city ?Northern Kordofan to Talodi city ?South Kordofan. Those who settled in Northern border of South Kordofan or Southern border of North Kordofan are mostly Guma?iyya, including: Guma?iyya Kilaibab, Guma?iyya Al Hussienat, and Guma?iyya Matrafia, in addition to other Hawazma Oulad Gaboush and Dar Ni?ayylie. These subtribes intermarried with Bidaria and Mosabatt and other Kordofanian tribes. Their lifestyle closely resembles the Kordofanian tribes. Mostly engaged in crops retailing and cattle?s marketing during dry seasons. Notably their Hawazma Arabic Accent is inclined to include Kordofanian Arabic accents. Similarly, they adopted a way of cultivation, crop tending, and harvesting similar to those other Kordofanian tribes. They used a long-sticked spade ?called Jarrieh and Saloqqa, they tend their farm while standing, not similar to those of Hawazma deep in South Kordofan who tend while they are sitting on their heels. Their crops include: millets, watermelon, groundnuts, sesame and hibiscus. Those who settled in the middle of South Kordofan ?Kadugli and its suburb, include: Guma?iyya Nafar Balal, Guma?iyya Nafar Ayyad, Guma?iyya Nafar Adam and others. These who settled around the Deling city and its suburb are mostly Hawazma?s Dar Ni?ayylie. Both groups have adopted the main stream Hawazma way of life and their Hawazma?s Arabic accents. In terms of agricultural practices, they grow sorghum, sesame, cotton and okra. They mostly use tools such as Sollucab for seeding and Antabab and axe for clearing shrubs and trees. Mostly cultivate by uprooting grasses with their bare hands. These are among the most victimized Hawazma during this civil wars. On the southern parts of South Kordofan, settled Hawazma Al Rawawqa. Al Rawawqa subtribe embodies large subsubtribal diversity. Among the most prevalent are Rawawqa Oulad Nuba. These are group of Hawazma who most resembles Nuba in most of their living habits and agricultural practices. They cultivate with Jarrieh a Nuba? developed tool, tend while sitting on their heels. Mostly grow sorghum, sesame, and groundnuts and gather wild okra. Again these are among the most victimized Hawazma in the region. On the eastern side of South Kordofan, lives Hawazma Darbettie, now separated from those living central South Kordofan, due to geographic distance. On the western parts of South Kordofan, no Hawazma live their, it is found our cousins: Messiria, Humr, Rizagat, Ta?isha and Habaniyya. They have similar lifestyles as Hawazma, and only differentiated by their phonetic accents of Arabic language.
    Baggara have graceful slim physical statues, their skins ranges from light brown to dark colors. Explorers to the region motioned that they have far better mental capabilities, wit and humor than any other African?s tribes around them; they have passion for life and collective life style. The men wear a white gown ? called Jallabiyya, white pants (Pajamas), a head cap ? Tagia, a big white turbans ? Eema and a locally made leather shoes ? called Marqoub. Always men of all ages carry knifes ? worn on the forceps of the left arm & hidden in a decorated leather covering, sticks, spears, sometimes swards and a big spears. The women wear a dress ? called Foustan, and cover their bodies with taubes ? Indian Sari. Young men wear eye-catching colored flashy shirts, shorts, pants, beads, necklaces, and bracelets. Young women wear Foustan during festivals and dancing to show their ornate braded hairs style. Baggara are among the most illiterate people in Sudan. In the early days, they look to the school as a way to alienate their kids, to teach them moral delinquencies, to distract them from Baggara way of life: cattle?s herding and nomadic movement. Young Baggara look after cows daylong, they return to Baggara camp during evening times. Baggara lacks clean drinking water, health the clinics, electricity, televisions, radios and other forms of media. Pregnant women rarely visit clinic or doctors. Genitalia?s mutilation is completely prevalent practices for all women during young ages 0-7 years. Facial scares ? Shoulokh, lips sticking, and hairs? braiding are usual practices among women. Women represent an important workforce; they milk cows, prepare meals, raise kids, market diary products, build houses, and participate in crops cultivation. Baggara?s youth are cheerful group in the Baggara families; their main mental set to look for festivals, rituals, dancing gossip around for absentinence and only supervises young kids to range cattle. Men are completely idle during dry seasons, play Dala (sort of cards played with sticks) and coordinate the meager activity during summer such as delivering family?s grains to mills for grounding and bringing the daily family grocery from women?s marketed-diary-product money. Baggara raise huge herds, never for marketing, but for prestige. The wealth and prestige is determined by the size of the herds one?s own. Women crush on those with large herds.

    The Civil War or Tribal Wars In South Kordofan
    In early 1983, South Kordofan?s inhabitants started to listen to South Sudan?s rebels broadcasting, consistently, in the afternoon. The broadcasting was repulsive. Rebels from Southern Sudan heavily dominated the program. The voice was the South?s voice and nothing else. ?With The Leader? progam was abhorrent, it continiuously call for Communism, as rebels yell all together ?Shiwaiyyahhh.? And, in many cases it was broadcasted with local dialects of the Southern Sudan, especially the bravery poems. You hear huge machine guns thundering on the background and roaing voices of the fighters. The introduction of woman?s voice in the fight was a turning point. ?The Woman?s Fighter? program introduced by Rebecca Jesho Kwashi was among the effective programs. With all the drawbacks, the broadcasting was effective in souring the environment as it clearily showing that the country was at war. And, with all disconnect bewteen Nuba and the Southern Sudan, the language in the broadcast and problems presented and what they aimed for had captured the facination of Nuba?s youth. The underdevelopment, social injustice and a like, are the quests for Nuba?s politicians for decades. The people became extra cauious in their traveling and movements around in South Kordofan. As early as 1984, Nuba started isolating themselves and regroup in their tribes? mountains or villages. There was clearily a no-peace-no-war status. Nuba?s voice was completely absent on the broadcasting at that time and there was no Nuba?s war agenda. But, everyone knew that Yusuf Kuwa have become a rebel and will wage a war in South Kordofan. Soon after, weapons started to appear in the black market. The Arabs had a capacity to buy weapons with any price, due to their possessions of cattle. The military compuses started calling back the retirees and drafting youngmen fro the military services. Weapons trade was florishing. Guns sellers are roaming all Baggara villages and nomads camps. A youngman without a machine gun was just like a woman. To be a man, you got to have a machine gun. Baggara started to organize themselves as militia. The militiamens given themselves roles to protect the Baggara? camps and fight to defend the villages. Nomeri?s regime started arming Misiriya and Humr to balance the rebel attack on Ibi Yei area. The rebels attacked Cheveron Oil Company, where four Cheveron employees were killed. Also, they attacked the Baggara campuses to acquire cattle for food. Now the war completely broke at southwest of South Kordofan. By the end of Normeri?s regime, in 1985, South Kordofan was completely in chaos. No war was started in southern, eastern or middle-eastern South Kordofan. During, Al Sadiq Al Mahdi era, Misiriya and Humr were fully armored. And the paramilitary forces became legal and carrying weapons was legal. Everyone has AK-47 machine gun. During this time rebels attacked the south South Kordofan, especially Gardoud village, around Talodi city, Baggara were heavily victimized in Gardoud. Religious leaders ? Imams, were publically executed, women were raped, houses were burned and cattle herds were raided. South Kordofan now is a war zone. People evacuted the cities, traders stopped their trades, and all other tribes and ethnic groups not from South Kordofan left the region. In 1987, Yusuf Kuwa entered South Kordofan as commander for the rebels. Immediately war expaned to Al Hamra, Al Buram, Um Sirdiba and surrounding areas. Hawazma villages were systematically trageted by rebels, killing them as groups individuals or evacuate them completely as what was happened in Um Sirdiba. In 1989, Al Boukhas village was completely destroyed and about 40 villages of Hawazma were either attacked or evacuated before the attack and the people left their possessions and crops. By the end of 1989, about 300 thousands Baggara were either relocated to big cities or displaced and resettled in nothern Border of South Kordofan. For 6 years, Kuwa?s war machines (six batteleons) were directed to systematic tourturing of Baggara tribes, completely destroying their infrastructures and eliminating their educated youth; leaders; and the elite. We haven?t seen any major attack on military compuses or major military strong hold places in South Kordofan. The war was directed toward Baggara tribesmens. In January 1990 Abu Safifa village was burned to the ground. By Feburay 1990, only Baggara men stayed on the villages while the kids; the women and the elderly were displaced or relocated. The war became ethnic cleansings against the Baggara, while the west still misleaded with the NGO?s, which they look after their religious and political agenda in South Kordofan?s desparate tribal wars. Rebel gurrela fighters were looking for excitement in the news by destroying Baggara?s villages to show their presence, then escape to mountains tops such as Morou Mountain or Tolishi Mountans. Nuba?s militia fighters found a breeding ground in the presence of rebels fighters. Tarrevera militia fighters, from Morou, crossed the road for every vehicle; evacuating Baggara?s and executing them. They placed road mines and ambushed cars. When mines went off, they would attack; kill or loot goods and then they would escape to the mountains or densely forested valleys. During President Omer Al Bashir military regime, which came to power in June 1989, by revolting against elected Prime Minister Sadiq Al Mahdi government, South Kordofan entered a new phase of the civil war. Islamic jihad war against infidels was completely the norm of life in South Kordofan. Religious decrees (Fatwas) were declared urging people to join the war. Baggara are 100 percent musilms and 75 percent of Nuba are musilms. Then who was the Islamic war against? However, due to desparation of Baggara, following the unspeakable atrocities by rebels, they sided with the military forces to protect theirselves. Soon, Yusuf Kuwa and rebels fighters realized the effect of Baggara on the war balance; basically attributed to their well knowledge of the terrains and intricacies of South Kordofan. Baggara?s have great courage. They lead the Government forces to caves and hiding places for the rebels during days or nights. Rebel?s Commander Yusuf Kuwa started to negotiate with Baggara, either to take side with him or at least to refrain from supporting the Government army against the rebels. Yusuf Kuwa successed in convening and writing many mutual agreements with local Baggara leaders. Baggara hold good to their agreements. This came to disadvantage the Government. The Government, thereafter, started a full swing against Baggara, who hold to their agreements by jailing, torturing or killing or forcing them to refrain from any agreements. As of today, with peace agreement in progress, Baggara has nothing to negotiate. They were used, abused and victimized by the rebels and the Government forces. NGOs never came to Baggara villages to report the atrocities, and probably assumed not deserving any human rights.

    I will continue.
    Biraima M Adam Email: badam571@cs.com
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25-02-2006, 00:36 AM

Kostawi

تاريخ التسجيل: 04-02-2002
مجموع المشاركات: 33483
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Re: الحوازمة--البقارة في جنوب كردفان: بقلم بريمة م آدم (Re: Kostawi)

    التفكيك:

    In early 1983, South Kordofan?s inhabitants started to listen to South Sudan?s rebels broadcasting, consistently, in the afternoon. The broadcasting was repulsive. Rebels from Southern Sudan heavily dominated the program. The voice was the South?s voice and nothing else. ?With The Leader? progam was abhorrent, it continiuously call for Communism, as rebels yell all together ?Shiwaiyyahhh.?

    Ok

    Let's go on
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25-02-2006, 00:42 AM

Kostawi

تاريخ التسجيل: 04-02-2002
مجموع المشاركات: 33483
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Re: الحوازمة--البقارة في جنوب كردفان: بقلم بريمة م آدم (Re: Kostawi)

    Quote: You hear huge machine guns thundering on the background and roaing voices of the fighters. The introduction of woman?s voice in the fight was a turning point. ?The Woman?s Fighter? program introduced by Rebecca Jesho Kwashi was among the effective programs.
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25-02-2006, 00:47 AM

Kostawi

تاريخ التسجيل: 04-02-2002
مجموع المشاركات: 33483
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Re: الحوازمة--البقارة في جنوب كردفان: بقلم بريمة م آدم (Re: Kostawi)

    Quote: Nuba started isolating themselves and regroup in their tribes? mountains or villages. There was clearily a no-peace-no-war status. Nuba?s voice was completely absent on the broadcasting at that time and there was no Nuba?


    OK
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25-02-2006, 00:52 AM

Kostawi

تاريخ التسجيل: 04-02-2002
مجموع المشاركات: 33483
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Re: الحوازمة--البقارة في جنوب كردفان: بقلم بريمة م آدم (Re: Kostawi)

    Quote: The Arabs had a capacity to buy weapons with any price, due to their possessions of cattle. The military compuses started calling back the retirees and drafting youngmen fro the military services.



    Aha
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25-02-2006, 00:56 AM

Kostawi

تاريخ التسجيل: 04-02-2002
مجموع المشاركات: 33483
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Re: الحوازمة--البقارة في جنوب كردفان: بقلم بريمة م آدم (Re: Kostawi)

    Quote: A youngman without a machine gun was just like a woman



    I hear you
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25-02-2006, 01:02 AM

Kostawi

تاريخ التسجيل: 04-02-2002
مجموع المشاركات: 33483
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Re: الحوازمة--البقارة في جنوب كردفان: بقلم بريمة م آدم (Re: Kostawi)

    Quote: To be a man, you got to have a machine gun.



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25-02-2006, 01:05 AM

Kostawi

تاريخ التسجيل: 04-02-2002
مجموع المشاركات: 33483
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Re: الحوازمة--البقارة في جنوب كردفان: بقلم بريمة م آدم (Re: Kostawi)

    Quote: Nomeri?s regime started arming Misiriya and Humr to balance the rebel attack on Ibi Yei area.



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25-02-2006, 01:08 AM

Kostawi

تاريخ التسجيل: 04-02-2002
مجموع المشاركات: 33483
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Re: الحوازمة--البقارة في جنوب كردفان: بقلم بريمة م آدم (Re: Kostawi)

    Quote: Baggara were heavily victimized in Gardoud. Religious leaders ? Imams, were publically executed, women were raped, houses were burned and cattle herds were raided. South Kordofan now is a war zone.
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25-02-2006, 01:18 AM

Kostawi

تاريخ التسجيل: 04-02-2002
مجموع المشاركات: 33483
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Re: الحوازمة--البقارة في جنوب كردفان: بقلم بريمة م آدم (Re: Kostawi)

    [
    Quote: During President Omer Al Bashir military regime, which came to power in June 1989, by revolting against elected Prime Minister Sadiq Al Mahdi government, South Kordofan entered a new phase of the civil war. Islamic jihad war against infidels was completely the norm of life in South Kordofan. Religious decrees (Fatwas) were declared urging people to join the war. Baggara are 100 percent musilms and 75 percent of Nuba are musilms. Then who was the Islamic war against? However, due to desparation of Baggara, following the unspeakable atrocities by rebels, they sided with the military forces to protect theirselves. Soon,



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25-02-2006, 01:28 AM

Kostawi

تاريخ التسجيل: 04-02-2002
مجموع المشاركات: 33483
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Re: الحوازمة--البقارة في جنوب كردفان: بقلم بريمة م آدم (Re: Kostawi)

    Quote: Baggara?s have great courage. They lead the Government forces to caves and hiding places for the rebels during days or nights.


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25-02-2006, 01:32 AM

Kostawi

تاريخ التسجيل: 04-02-2002
مجموع المشاركات: 33483
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Re: الحوازمة--البقارة في جنوب كردفان: بقلم بريمة م آدم (Re: Kostawi)

    Quote: Commander Yusuf Kuwa started to negotiate with Baggara, either to take side with him or at least to refrain from supporting the Government army against the rebels. Yusuf Kuwa successed in convening and writing many mutual agreements with local Baggara leaders. Baggara hold good to their agreements. This came to disadvantage the Government. The Government, thereafter, started a full swing against Baggara, who hold to their agreements by jailing, torturing or killing or forcing them to refrain from any agreements. As of today, with peace agreement in progress, Baggara has nothing to negotiate. They were used, abused and victimized by the rebels and the Government forces. NGOs never came to Baggara villages to report the atrocities, and probably assumed not deserving any human righ
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25-02-2006, 01:41 AM

Kostawi

تاريخ التسجيل: 04-02-2002
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Re: الحوازمة--البقارة في جنوب كردفان: بقلم بريمة م آدم (Re: Kostawi)

    Will be back
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06-04-2006, 03:59 AM

Biraima M Adam

تاريخ التسجيل: 05-07-2005
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Re: الحوازمة--البقارة في جنوب كردفان: بقلم بريمة م آدم (Re: Kostawi)


    تيس المنبر، فحل بنات البقارة كوستاوى
    ما تقول لى، عايز شنو؟ وجدت هذه البوست بالصدفه، ولم أراك تستطيع إجلاء وجهة نظرك ..
    دائماً أنت ما عندك المقدرة تقول عايز شنو؟ قول لى هل أنت مع الطرح أم ضده؟
    بريمة
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